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Team Velocity in Agile - Definition, Benefits & Measurement Tips

Last updated on
June 16, 2023


What is team velocity?

Team velocity is a metric in software development that measures the amount of work your team can complete within a given time frame. It gives you insights into productivity and delivery pace.

Why to measure team velocity?

Measuring team velocity allows your team to forecast project timelines, identify bottlenecks, and optimize their workflow, ultimately enhancing productivity and achieving successful software delivery.

Keep reading to discover secrets behind measuring team velocity and unleash your team's full potential. Learn more about its benefits, risks, and practical strategies for success.


Team Velocity in Agile - Definition, Benefits & Measurement Tips


One of many challenges of software development teams is to keep software development projects on track. Without an accurate plan, it may be challenging to deliver software within set timelines. By understanding the true impact of team velocity, you can drive productivity, enhance quality, and achieve remarkable results in your software development endeavors. 

In this article, we will delve into the benefits, risks, and best practices of measuring team velocity together with alternative metrics to consider. This powerful metric will benefit your project planning and delivery. 

What is team velocity?

Team velocity metric refers to the rate at which your team is able to deliver working software over a specific time period. It can serve as an indicator of your team's productivity and efficiency in turning requirements into tangible results.

The metric focuses on completed work, meaning the software is not only developed but also fully tested and ready for deployment. It doesn't count unfinished work or partially completed features, as your goal is to deliver reliable and usable software to users.

Team velocity acts as a compass, providing insights into your team's capability to reliably forecast its output. By analyzing historical data, you can make informed predictions about the future, allowing for better planning and decision-making.

Benefits of improving team velocity

Improving team velocity brings numerous advantages to your team and your organization as a whole. Here are five key benefits that arise from enhancing team velocity:

Predictable planning

When team velocity improves, your team gains a better understanding of their delivery capacity. With a clear grasp of their capabilities, your team can make realistic commitments and set achievable goals, increasing transparency and reducing the risk of overpromising or underdelivering.

Efficient resource allocation

By focusing on improving team velocity, your teams can identify bottlenecks and streamline their processes. This optimization enables efficient allocation of resources, including time, skills, and tools. As a result, your team can maximize productivity, ensure better utilization of available resources, and minimize wasted effort or idle time.

Early feedback and iterative improvement

Increasing team velocity often involves adopting agile practices like iterative development and continuous feedback loops. This approach will allow you to deliver smaller increments of working software more frequently. By receiving early feedback from users and stakeholders, your team can iterate and improve their software. 

Enhanced collaboration and team morale:

When team velocity improves, your team will experience a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction from consistently delivering high-quality software. This positive outcome boosts team morale and motivates individuals to collaborate effectively. As collaboration improves, team members can leverage each other's strengths, share knowledge, and collectively solve problems. 

Customer satisfaction and business value

By delivering working software more frequently, your team can provide value to users in a timely manner. Users experience faster access to new features, bug fixes, and improvements, which in turn leads to greater customer satisfaction. Additionally, your organization can derive business value through earlier time-to-market, increased revenue, and competitive advantage. 

Risks of focusing on team velocity

While measuring team velocity can provide valuable insights, it's essential to be aware of potential risks and limitations associated with relying solely on this metric for decision-making. Here are five risks to consider:

Focusing on speed

Relying heavily on team velocity can lead to focus on speed alone. Your team may prioritize quantity over quality, sacrificing essential practices such as thorough testing, code reviews, and design discussions. This risk undermines the long-term sustainability and maintainability of the software, potentially resulting in technical debt and an increased likelihood of defects.

Ignoring external factors

Measuring team velocity in isolation can overlook external factors that impact your team's performance. Variables like changing requirements, complex technical challenges, or dependencies on external teams can significantly affect a team's ability to deliver at a consistent velocity. Failing to consider these factors may result in unrealistic expectations and misguided decisions.

Sacrificing quality

Focusing solely on team velocity risks ignoring team dynamics and learning opportunities. Your team is a complex entity composed of individuals with different skill sets, strengths, and working styles. Team members may feel pressured to adhere to strict targets. It may hinder creativity, growth, and the potential for innovation.

Neglecting contextual factors

Measuring team velocity without considering contextual factors poses a risk. Each team operates within a unique context, influenced by factors such as domain complexity, external dependencies, and available resources. Ignoring these contextual nuances can lead to unrealistic expectations and unfair comparisons between teams. 

Misaligned incentives

Focusing too much on increasing team speed can also cause problems. Team members might feel like they have to exaggerate how much work they can do. This behavior compromises accuracy and transparency, impacting trust within the team and potentially undermining the quality of the delivered software.

How to measure team velocity?

Measuring team velocity is a fundamental aspect of agile software development. It will help your team understand the  pace of delivery and make informed decisions. Let's explore how to measure team velocity:

Step 1: define a unit of work

First, your team needs to establish a unit of work that represents a deliverable piece of value. For instance, let's consider user stories as the unit of work. User stories represent specific features or functionalities that provide value to the end users.

Step 2: start tracking

At the beginning of a sprint, your team selects a set of user stories they commit to completing within the sprint's duration. Throughout the sprint, they track their progress on each user story, indicating when a story is in progress and when it is completed.

Step 3: calculate completed work

At the end of the sprint, your team calculates the total number of user stories they have completed and delivered. For instance, if they finished 8 out of the 10 user stories they committed to, the completed work for that sprint is 8 user stories.

Step 4: measure velocity

To determine the team velocity, the completed work is divided by the sprint's duration in weeks. In our example, if the sprint duration is 2 weeks, the team velocity would be 8 user stories / 2 weeks = 4 user stories per week.

Alternatives to team velocity metric

While team velocity is a commonly used metric in software development, there are alternative approaches that your business may consider. Here are a few main alternatives to team velocity, along with their explanations and comparisons:

Cycle time

Cycle time measures the time it takes for a work item to move through the development process from start to finish. Unlike team velocity, which focuses on completed work within a specific time frame, cycle time offers a more granular view of individual work items. 

Choose cycle time when you need to analyze and optimize the flow of work through the development process and identify areas of improvement.

Lead time

Lead time measures the total time taken from the initial request or idea to the delivery of the final software. It encompasses not only the development process but also the time spent on requirements gathering, analysis, design, and testing. Compared to team velocity, lead time offers a more comprehensive view of the time taken to deliver value to users. 

Choose lead time when you want to analyze and optimize the entire software development life cycle and identify opportunities to reduce time-to-market.


Throughput measures the number of work items completed within a given time frame. Throughput is similar to team velocity in that it assesses the volume of work completed. However, it doesn't consider estimation or effort involved in individual work items. 

Choose throughput when you want to assess your team's capacity to handle a high volume of work or when detailed estimation is not essential.

​​​​Quality metrics

Quality metrics focus on measuring the quality of software deliverables. They assess factors like defect density, code coverage, customer satisfaction, and response time. Unlike team velocity, which primarily measures delivery speed, quality metrics provide insights into the reliability, maintainability, and user satisfaction aspects of the software. 

Choose quality metrics when you want to emphasize the quality of the delivered software and ensure customer satisfaction.

Earned value management (EVM)

Earned value management is a technique that combines measurements of scope, schedule, and cost to assess project performance. It compares the planned value (PV) of work scheduled to be done with the earned value (EV) of work completed. Unlike team velocity, which focuses on completed work within a time frame, EVM takes into account the planned value and compares it to the earned value.

Choose EVM when you want to measure project performance comprehensively, considering cost and schedule factors alongside the progress of completed work.

Next steps

Measuring team velocity is key for product development and scaling. It plays a major role in planning and delivery of software development. Moreover, it offers valuable insights into team's productivity and delivery pace, enabling accurate forecasting and workflow optimization. However, it's essential for every team to compose a set of metrics that align with their unique needs. 

To delve deeper into the world of software delivery performance metrics, process metrics, and other software development metrics, check out our related articles. With the right set of metrics, you can drive your product's success with ease.

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